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Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Strategies for Cancer Treatment
Angiogenesis is the process through which novel blood vessels are formed from pre-existing ones and it is involved in both physiological and pathological processes of the body. Furthermore, tumor angiogenesis is a crucial factor associated with tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In this manner, there has been a great interest in the development of anti-angiogenesis strategies that could inhibit tumor vascularization. Conventional approaches comprise the administration of anti-angiogenic drugs that target and block the activity of proangiogenic factors. However, as their efficacy is still a matter of debate, novel strategies have been focusing on combining anti-angiogenic agents with chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Moreover, nanotechnology has also been investigated for the potential of nanomaterials to target and release anti-angiogenic drugs at specific sites. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis and tumor vascularization and provide an overview of the recent trends in anti-angiogenic strategies for cancer therapy.